• • • Philosophy (from φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally 'love of wisdom' ) is the of general and fundamental concerning matters such as,,,,, and. The term was probably coined by (c. 570–495 BCE). Include,,, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to and to prove it? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live?
Is it better to be (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have? Historically, 'philosophy' encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher to the 19th century, ' encompassed,, and. For example, 's 1687 later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern led academic philosophy and other disciplines to and specialize.
Dedicated to. Who love hinduism. And its sublime philosophy. And practise its teachings. POLSC201: Introduction to Western Political Thought. If you're interested in reading philosophy or thinking about life purpose and social organization. Educational Philosophy Hindi App for All Students. Categories in this App::: ज्ञानमीमांसा (Epistomology in Hindi):: तत्वमीमांसा (Metaphysics in Hindi):: नीतिमीमांसा (Ethics in Hindi):: सौंदर्यशास्त्र (Aesthetics in Hindi):: तर्कशास्त्र (Logic in Hindi) if you Like This App plz Support me.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including,,, and. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is objective or subjective?
Are there many or just one? Is political a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include ('concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being'), (about the 'nature and grounds of knowledge [and].its limits and validity' ),,,,,, and the history of Western philosophy. Since the 20th century, professional contribute to society primarily as, researchers, and writers. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities. Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Knowledge Traditionally, the term 'philosophy' referred to any body of. In this sense, philosophy is closely related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics.
Newton's 1687 ' is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics; he used the term ' because it used to encompass disciplines that later became associated with sciences such as, and. In, Philosophy was traditionally divided into three major branches: • ('physics') was the study of the physical world ( physis, lit: nature); • ('ethics') was the study of goodness, right and wrong, beauty, justice and virtue ( ethos, lit: custom); • ('logic') was the study of, causation,,, and other abstract objects (' meta-physika' lit: 'what comes after physics'). This division is not obsolete but has changed. Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory (including aesthetics, ethics, political philosophy, etc.).
Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others. Philosophical progress Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. And others claim that no has occurred during that interval. And others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that 'progress' is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. Historical overview In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as 'how are we to live' and 'what is the nature of reality'.
A broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy. Bust of Socrates in the is the philosophical tradition of the and dates to thinkers who were active in in the 6th century BCE such as (c. 624–546 BCE) and (c. 570–495 BCE) who practiced a 'love of wisdom' ( philosophia) and were also termed physiologoi (students of physis, or nature). Was a very influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom.
Can be divided into three eras: (Greco-Roman), (Christian European), and. The Ancient era was dominated by which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as who founded the, and was one of the most influential Greek thinkers for the whole of Western thought. Plato's student was also extremely influential, founding the. Other traditions include,, and. Important topics covered by the Greeks included (with competing theories such as and ),, the nature of the well-lived life (), the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason ().
With the rise of the, Greek philosophy was also increasingly discussed in by such as and. (5th – 16th century) is the period following the fall of the western Roman empire and was dominated by the rise of and hence reflects theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought. Problems such as the existence and nature of, the nature of and reason, metaphysics, the were discussed in this period. Some key Medieval thinkers include,,, and.
Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to ( ancilla theologiae) and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. This period saw the development of, a text critical method developed in based on close reading and disputation on key texts. The (1355–1650) period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust. In the Western world begins with thinkers such as and (1596–1650).
Ebook Manajemen Pemasaran Philip Kotler Definition more. Following the rise of natural science, was concerned with developing a secular and rational foundation for knowledge and moved away from traditional structures of authority such as religion, scholastic thought and the Church. Major modern philosophers include,,,,, and.
Is influenced by the wider movement termed, and includes figures such as a key figure in, who developed the foundations for, a famed anti-Christian, who promoted, who developed the foundations for and the American. The 20th century saw the split between and, as well as philosophical trends such as,,, and the.
Middle Eastern philosophy. See also: and The regions of the, and are home to the earliest known philosophical and is today mostly dominated. Early wisdom literature from the fertile crescent was a genre which sought to instruct people on ethical action, practical living and virtue through stories and proverbs. In, these texts were known as ('teachings') and they are central to our understandings of. Also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks. And are religio-philosophical traditions that developed both in the Middle East and in Europe, which both share certain early Judaic texts (mainly the ) and monotheistic beliefs.
Jewish thinkers such as the of the and engaged with Greek and Islamic philosophy. Later Jewish philosophy came under strong Western intellectual influences and includes the works of who ushered in the (the Jewish Enlightenment), and.
Pre-Islamic begins with the work of, one of the first promoters of and of the between good and evil. This dualistic cosmogony influenced later Iranian developments such as,, and. After the, developed the Greek philosophical traditions in new innovative directions. This influenced European intellectual developments.
The two main currents of early Islamic thought are which focuses on and which was based on and. The work of Aristotle was very influential among the falsafa such as (9th century), (980 – June 1037) and (12th century). Others such as were highly critical of the methods of the Aristotelian falsafa.
Islamic thinkers also developed a, experimental medicine, a theory of optics and a legal philosophy. Was an influential thinker in. In several schools of Islamic philosophy continued to flourish after the Golden Age and include currents such as,, and. The 19th and 20th century saw the (awakening or renaissance) movement which influenced. Indian philosophy. Monks debating at, Tibet, 2013. Begins with the thought of (fl.
Between sixth and fourth centuries BCE) and is preserved in the. Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural. It originated in India and later spread to,,, and, developing new and syncretic traditions in these different regions. The various Buddhist schools of thought are the dominant philosophical tradition in and Southeast Asian countries like and. Because to the true nature of things is considered one of the roots of suffering (), Buddhist philosophy is concerned with epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and psychology. The ending of also encompasses. Key innovative concepts include the, (not-self) a critique of a fixed, the transience of all things (), and a certain.
Later Buddhist philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed '. Philosophers such as and developed the theories of (emptiness of all phenomena) and Vijnapti-matra (appearance only), a form of phenomenology.
The school of promoted a complex form of and. After the disappearance of Buddhism from India, these philosophical traditions continued to develop in the, and traditions.
The modern period saw the rise of and under Western influences and the development of a with influences from modern psychology and Western philosophy. East Asian philosophy. Kitarō Nishida, professor of philosophy at Kyoto University and founder of the. East Asian philosophical thought began in, and begins during the Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the ' flourished (6th century to 221 BCE).
This period was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments and saw the rise of the major philosophical schools of China,,, and as well as numerous other less influential schools. These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories such,, and which, along with, directly influenced, and (which also includes the native tradition). Buddhism began arriving in China during the (206 BCE–220 CE), through a and through native influences developed distinct Chinese forms (such as Chan/) which spread throughout the. During later Chinese dynasties like the (1368–1644) as well as in the Korean (1392–1897) a resurgent led by thinkers such as (1472–1529) became the dominant school of thought, and was promoted by the imperial state. In the Modern era, Chinese thinkers incorporated ideas from Western philosophy. Developed under the influence of, while a Chinese pragmatism under and 's rise was influenced. Modern Japanese thought meanwhile developed under strong Western influences such as the study of Western Sciences () and the modernist intellectual society which drew from European enlightenment thought.
The 20th century saw the rise of and also. The, an influential and unique Japanese philosophical school developed from Western phenomenology and Medieval Japanese Buddhist philosophy such as that of. African philosophy. Main article: African philosophy is philosophy produced by, philosophy that presents African worldviews, ideas and themes, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods. Modern African thought has been occupied with, with defining the very meaning of African philosophy and its unique characteristics and what it means to be. During the 17th century, developed a robust literary tradition as exemplified.
Another early African philosopher was (c. 1703–1759) who became a respected philosopher in Germany. Distinct African philosophical ideas include, the Bantu idea of,, and. Contemporary African thought has also seen the development of Professional philosophy and of, the philosophical literature of the which includes currents such as. Acer Wlan 11G Usb Dongle Driver Xp there. Modern African thinkers have been influenced by,,,, and.
Indigenous American philosophy. The Aztec, also known as the Aztec Calendar Stone, at,. Indigenous American philosophy is the philosophy of the. There is a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among these different American cultures.
Among some of the there is a belief in a metaphysical principle called the 'Great Mystery' (:,: ). Another widely shared concept was that of or 'spiritual power'. According to Peter M. Whiteley, for the Native Americans, 'Mind is critically informed by transcendental experience (dreams, visions and so on) as well as by reason.' The practices to access these transcendental experiences are termed. Another feature of the indigenous American worldviews was their extension of ethics to non-human animals and plants. In, was an intellectual tradition developed by individuals called ('those who know something') and its ideas are preserved in various.
The Aztec worldview posited the concept of an ultimate universal energy or force called which can be translated as 'Dual Cosmic Energy' and sought a way to live in balance with a constantly changing, 'slippery' world. The theory of Teotl can be seen as a form of. Aztec philosophers developed theories of metaphysics, epistemology, values, and aesthetics. Aztec ethics was focused on seeking tlamatiliztli (knowledge, wisdom) which was based on moderation and balance in all actions as in the Nahua proverb 'the middle good is necessary'. The also had an elite class of philosopher-scholars termed the Amawtakuna who were important in the system as teachers of religion, tradition, history and ethics. Key concepts of Andean thought are and which involve a theory of “complementary opposites” that sees polarities (such as male/female, dark/light) as interdependent parts of a harmonious whole. Categories Philosophical questions can be grouped into categories.
These groupings allow philosophers to focus on a set of similar topics and interact with other thinkers who are interested in the same questions. The groupings also make philosophy easier for students to approach. Students can learn the basic principles involved in one aspect of the field without being overwhelmed with the entire set of philosophical theories. Various sources present different categorical schemes. The categories adopted in this article aim for breadth and simplicity.
These five major branches can be separated into sub-branches and each sub-branch contains many specific fields of study. • and • • Science, and mathematics • History of Western philosophy • Philosophical traditions These divisions are neither exhaustive, nor mutually exclusive. (A philosopher might specialize in epistemology, or aesthetics, or modern political philosophy.) Furthermore, these philosophical inquiries sometimes overlap with each other and with other inquiries such as science, religion or mathematics. Main article: Metaphysics is the study of the most general features of, such as,, and their, wholes and their parts, events, processes and and the relationship between and. Metaphysics includes, the study of the in its entirety and, the study of. A major point of debate is between, which holds that there are entities that exist independently of their mental perception and, which holds that reality is mentally constructed or otherwise immaterial.
Metaphysics deals with the topic of. Is the set of attributes that make an object what it fundamentally is and without which it loses its identity while is a property that the object has, without which the object can still retain its identity. Are objects that are said to exist in space and time, as opposed to, such as numbers, and, which are properties held by multiple particulars, such as redness or a gender. The type of existence, if any, of universals and abstract objects is an issue of debate. Founded Buddhist epistemology () Epistemology is the study of knowledge (Greek episteme).
Epistemologists study the putative sources of knowledge, including intuition, a priori reason, memory, perceptual knowledge, self-knowledge and testimony. They also ask: What is? Is knowledge justified true belief?
Are any beliefs? Putative knowledge includes propositional knowledge (knowledge that something is the case), know-how (knowledge of how to do something) and acquaintance (familiarity with someone or something). Epistemologists examine these and ask whether knowledge is really possible. Is the position which doubts claims to knowledge. The, a fundamental problem in epistemology, occurs when, in order to completely prove any statement, its justification itself needs to be supported by another justification. This chain can go on forever, called, it can eventually rely on that are left unproven, called, or it can go in a circle so that a statement is included in its own chain of justification, called.
Is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. It is associated with, which is independent of experience, such as math and logical deduction. Is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience as the source of knowledge. Among the numerous topics within metaphysics and epistemology, broadly construed are: • explores the nature, the origins and the use of language.
• explores the nature of the mind and its relationship to the body. It is typified by disputes between and. In recent years this branch has become related to. • explores questions that arise in connection with religions, including the soul, the afterlife, God, religious experience, analysis of religious vocabulary and texts and the relationship of and. • analyzes the unique characteristics of human beings, such as rationality, politics and culture.
• explores the aims of philosophy, its boundaries and its methods. Value theory Value theory (or ) is the major branch of philosophy that addresses topics such as goodness, beauty and justice. Value theory includes ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, feminist philosophy, philosophy of law and more.
The was an intellectual center for Confucian ethics and classics during the, and dynasties. Ethics, or 'moral philosophy', studies and considers what is good and bad, right and, and.
Its primary investigations include how to live a good life and identifying standards of. It also includes about whether a best way to live or related standards exists. The main branches of ethics are, and. A major area of debate involves, in which actions are judged by the potential results of the act, such as to maximize happiness, called, and, in which actions are judged by how they adhere to principles, irrespective of negative ends. Main article: Aesthetics is the 'critical reflection on art, culture and.' It addresses the nature of, and, enjoyment, emotional values, perception and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more precisely defined as the study of or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called of and taste.
Its major divisions are art theory,, and. An example from art theory is to discern the set of principles underlying the work of a particular artist or artistic movement such as the aesthetic. The analyzes films and filmmakers for their philosophical content and explores film (images, cinema, etc.) as a medium for philosophical reflection and expression. [ ] Political philosophy. Political philosophy is the study of and the relationship of individuals (or families and clans) to communities including the.
It includes questions about justice, law, property and the rights and obligations of the citizen. Politics and ethics are traditionally linked subjects, as both discuss the question of how people should live together. Other branches of value theory: • (often called ) explores the varying theories explaining the nature and interpretation of laws.
• analyzes the definition and content of education, as well as the goals and challenges of educators. • explores questions surrounding gender, sexuality and the body including the nature of itself as a social and philosophical movement.
• analyzes sports, games and other forms of play as sociological and uniquely human activities. Logic, science and mathematics Many academic disciplines generated philosophical inquiry. The relationship between 'X' and the 'philosophy of X' is debated. Argued that the philosophy of a topic is irrelevant to its primary study, saying that ' is as useful to scientists as is to birds.' , by contrast, argued that philosophical tools are essential to humanities, sciences and social sciences.
The topics of philosophy of science are, symbols and the formal methods of reasoning as employed in the and. Main article: Logic is the study of reasoning and argument.
An argument is ' a connected series of statements intended to establish a proposition.' The connected series of statements are ' and the proposition is the conclusion. For example: • All humans are mortal. (premise) • Socrates is a human.
(premise) • Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion) is when, given certain premises, conclusions are. Are used to infer conclusions such as,, where given “A” and “If A then B”, then “B” must be concluded. Because sound reasoning is an essential element of all sciences, social sciences and humanities disciplines, logic became a. Sub-fields include,,, and.
A major question in the is whether mathematical entities are objective and discovered, called mathematical realism, or invented, called mathematical antirealism. Philosophy of science. Further information: and Some philosophers specialize in one or more historical periods. The history of philosophy (study of a specific period, individual or school) is related to but not the same as the (the theoretical aspect of history, which deals with questions such as the nature of historical evidence and the possibility of objectivity). Hegel's influenced many philosophers to interpret truth in light of history, a view called.
Philosophical schools Some philosophers specialize in one or more of the major philosophical schools, such as,,,. Other approaches A variety of other academic and non-academic approaches have been explored. Applied philosophy. The ideas conceived by a society have profound repercussions on what actions the society performs. Argued that ideas have consequences. Philosophy yields applications such as those in – in particular – and.
The political and economic philosophies of,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, and have been used to shape and justify governments and their actions. Progressive education as championed by had a profound impact on 20th century US educational practices. Descendants of this movement include efforts in, which are part of. 's political has had a profound effect on, and in the 20th century, especially around. Logic is important in,,, and. Other important applications can be found in, which aid in understanding the requisites for knowledge, sound evidence and justified belief (important in,, and a number of other disciplines).
The discusses the underpinnings of the and has affected the nature of scientific investigation and argumentation. Philosophy thus has fundamental implications for science as a whole. For example, the strictly empirical approach of 's behaviorism affected for decades the approach of the American psychological establishment. And examine the moral situation of humans as occupants of a world that has non-human occupants to consider also.
Can help to interpret discussions of,, the and the whole artistic dimension of life. In general, the various philosophies strive to provide practical activities with a deeper understanding of the theoretical or conceptual underpinnings of their fields. Society Some of those who study philosophy become professional philosophers, typically by working as who teach, research and write in academic institutions. However, most students of academic philosophy later contribute to law, journalism, religion, sciences, politics, business, or various arts.
For example, public figures who have degrees in philosophy include comedians and, filmmaker,, Wikipedia co-founder, Supreme Court Justice and vice presidential candidate. Recent efforts to avail the general public to the work and relevance of philosophers include the million-dollar, first awarded to in 2016. Professional Germany was the first country to professionalize philosophy. At the end of 1817, Hegel was the first philosopher to be appointed Professor by the State, namely by the Prussian Minister of Education, as an effect of Napoleonic reform in Prussia. In the United States, the professionalisation grew out of reforms to the American higher-education system largely based on the German model.
American philosopher of mind and philosopher of art (1895–1985). Although men have generally dominated philosophical discourse, women have engaged in philosophy throughout history. Women have contributed since ancient times–notably (active ca. 325 BCE) and (active 5th–4th century BCE). More were accepted during the, and eras, but no women philosophers became part the until the 20th and 21st century, when some sources indicate that, and entered the canon. In the early 1800s, some colleges and universities in the UK and US began, producing more female academics. Nevertheless, reports from the 1990s indicate that few women ended up in philosophy, and that philosophy is one of the least gender-proportionate fields in the.
In 2014, described the philosophy '.discipline's own long history of and ' of women students and professors. Philosophy professor stated in 2015 that women are '.leaving philosophy after being harassed, assaulted, or retaliated against.' In the early 1990s, the noted a gender imbalance and in the academic field of philosophy. In June 2013, a US sociology professor stated that 'out of all recent citations in four prestigious philosophy journals, female authors comprise just 3.6 percent of the total.' Susan Price argues that the philosophical '.canon remains dominated by white males – the discipline that.still hews to the myth that genius is tied to gender.' Morgan Thompson suggests that discrimination, differences in abilities, grade differences and the lack of role models in philosophy could be potential factors for the gender gap.
According to Saul, '[p]hilosophy, the oldest of the, is also the malest (and the whitest). While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is actually more overwhelmingly male than even mathematics.' Popular culture In 2000, the began publishing a series of books on philosophy and. Each book consists of essays written by philosophers for general readers. The books 'explore the meanings, concepts and puzzles within television shows, movies, music and other icons of popular culture' analyzing topics such as the TV shows and, and movies and related media and new technological developments such as the and.
Their most recent publication (as of 2016 ) is titled Louis C.K. And Philosophy; its subject is the comedian. Makes numerous references to philosophy including,,,,,,, and.
The film's premise resembles 's, Descartes's, 's reflections on the versus the, 's ', Marxist social theory and the thought experiment. Many references to 's appear in the film, although Baudrillard himself considered this a misrepresentation. Macmillan & Free Press.
• Kant, Immanuel (1881).. • Bowker, John (1999).. Oxford University Press, Incorporated.. • Baldwin, Thomas, ed. (27 November 2003).. Cambridge University Press.. • Copenhaver, Brian P.; Schmitt, Charles B.
(24 September 1992).. Oxford University Press..
• (15 April 2008).. John Wiley & Sons.. • Rutherford, Donald (12 October 2006).. Cambridge University Press.. • Schmitt, C. B.; Skinner, Quentin, eds.
Cambridge University Press.. • (16 August 2012).. Oxford University Press.. • Honderich, T., ed.
Oxford University Press.. • Bunnin, Nicholas; Tsui-James, Eric, eds. (15 April 2008).. John Wiley & Sons.. Paulist Press.. •; Morewedge, Parviz (2000).
'Islamic philosophy modern'. In Craig, Edward.. Psychology Press.. • Buccellati, Giorgio (1981-01-01).. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 101 (1): 35–47..
General introductions. • Blumenau, Ralph. Philosophy and Living.
Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. • Harrison-Barbet, Anthony, Mastering Philosophy. • Sinclair, Alistair J. What is Philosophy? An Introduction, 2008, •. Core Questions in Philosophy: A Text with Readings.
Upper Saddle River, Prentice Hall. • Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy. Philosophy: The Basics. • Nagel, Thomas. What Does It All Mean? A Very Short Introduction to Philosophy. • Classics of Philosophy (Vols.
1, 2, & 3) by Louis P. Pojman • The English Philosophers from Bacon to Mill by Edwin Arthur • European Philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche by Monroe Beardsley • Cottingham, John. Western Philosophy: An Anthology.
Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2008. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies. The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View. Topical introductions.
Eastern • A Source Book in Indian Philosophy by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Charles A. Moore • Hamilton, Sue. Indian Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction. • Kupperman, Joel J. Classic Asian Philosophy: A Guide to the Essential Texts.
• Lee, Joe and Powell, Jim. Eastern Philosophy For Beginners.
• Smart, Ninian. World Philosophies. • Copleston, Frederick. Philosophy in Russia: From Herzen to Lenin and Berdyaev. African • Imbo, Samuel Oluoch. '3'An Introduction to African Philosophy. Islamic • Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings edited by Muhammad Ali Khalidi • Leaman, Oliver.
A Brief Introduction to Islamic Philosophy.. • (23 June 2014) .. Translated by Sherrard,, Liadain;. Taylor & Francis..
• Aminrazavi, Mehdi Amin Razavi; Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Nasr, PH.D., Seyyed Hossein (16 December 2013).. Historical introductions. Princeton University Press.. • Huang, Siu-chi (1999)..
Greenwood Publishing Group.. • Honderich, T., ed. Oxford University Press..
• The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy by Robert Audi • The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (10 vols.) edited by Edward Craig, (available online by subscription); or • The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy edited by Edward Craig (an abridgement) •, ed. Macmillan & Free Press.; in 1996, a ninth supplemental volume appeared that updated the classic 1967 encyclopedia. Charlottesville, Philosophy Documentation Center. Charlottesville, Philosophy Documentation Center. • Routledge History of Philosophy (10 vols.) edited by John Marenbon • History of Philosophy (9 vols.) by • A History of Western Philosophy (5 vols.) by W.
Jones • History of Italian Philosophy (2 vols.). Translated from Italian and Edited by Giorgio Pinton. Introduction by Leon Pompa. • Encyclopaedia of Indian Philosophies (8 vols.), edited by Karl H. Potter et al. (first 6 volumes out of print) • Indian Philosophy (2 vols.) by • A History of Indian Philosophy (5 vols.) by Surendranath Dasgupta • History of Chinese Philosophy (2 vols.) by Fung Yu-lan, Derk Bodde • Instructions for Practical Living and Other Neo-Confucian Writings by Wang Yang-ming by Chan, Wing-tsit • Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy edited by Antonio S. Cua • Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion by Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Franz-Karl Ehrhard, Kurt Friedrichs • Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy by Brian Carr, Indira Mahalingam • A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English by John A.
Grimes • History of Islamic Philosophy edited by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Oliver Leaman • History of Jewish Philosophy edited by Daniel H. Frank, Oliver Leaman • A History of Russian Philosophy: From the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries by Valerii Aleksandrovich Kuvakin • Ayer, A.J. (1994) A Dictionary of Philosophical Quotations. Blackwell Reference Oxford. Oxford, Basil Blackwell Ltd.
• Blackburn, S., Ed. (1996) The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford, Oxford University Press. • Mauter, T., Ed.
The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. London, Penguin Books. • Runes, D., Ed. New York, The Philosophical Library, Inc.
• Angeles, P.A., Ed. The Harper Collins Dictionary of Philosophy. New York, Harper Perennial.
• Bunnin, Nicholas; Tsui-James, Eric, eds. (15 April 2008).. John Wiley & Sons.. • Hoffman, Eric, Ed. (1997) Guidebook for Publishing Philosophy. Charlottesville, Philosophy Documentation Center. • Popkin, R.H.
The Columbia History of Western Philosophy. New York, Columbia University Press. • Bullock, Alan, and Oliver Stallybrass, jt. The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought. New York: Harper & Row, 1977. N.B.: 'First published in England under the title, The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought.'
• Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1980.
Donor Challenge: A generous supporter will match your donation 3 to 1 right now. Triple your impact! Dear Internet Archive Supporter, I ask only once a year: please help the Internet Archive today.
We’re an independent, non-profit website that the entire world depends on. Most can’t afford to donate, but we hope you can. If everyone chips in $25, we can keep this going for free. For the price of a book, we can share that book online forever. When I started this, people called me crazy. Collect web pages?
Who’d want to read a book on a screen? For 21 years, we’ve backed up the Web, so if government data or entire newspapers disappear, we can say: We Got This. The key is to keep improving—and to keep it free. We have only 150 staff but run one of the world’s top websites. We’re dedicated to reader privacy.
We never accept ads. But we still need to pay for servers and staff. The Internet Archive is a bargain, but we need your help.
If you find our site useful, please chip in. —Brewster Kahle, Founder, Internet Archive. Dear Internet Archive Supporter, I ask only once a year: please help the Internet Archive today.
We’re an independent, non-profit website that the entire world depends on. Most can’t afford to donate, but we hope you can. If everyone chips in $25, we can keep this going for free. For the price of a book, we can share that book online forever.
When I started this, people called me crazy. Collect web pages? For 21 years, we’ve backed up the Web, so if government data or entire newspapers disappear, we can say: We Got This.
We’re dedicated to reader privacy. We never accept ads.
But we still need to pay for servers and staff. If you find our site useful, please chip in. —Brewster Kahle, Founder, Internet Archive.
Dear Internet Archive Supporter, I ask only once a year: please help the Internet Archive today. We’re an independent, non-profit website that the entire world depends on.
Most can’t afford to donate, but we hope you can. If everyone chips in $25, we can keep this going for free. For the price of a book, we can share that book online forever. When I started this, people called me crazy. Collect web pages?
For 21 years, we’ve backed up the Web, so if government data or entire newspapers disappear, we can say: We Got This. We’re dedicated to reader privacy. We never accept ads. But we still need to pay for servers and staff.
If you find our site useful, please chip in. —Brewster Kahle, Founder, Internet Archive. Dear Internet Archive Supporter, I ask only once a year: please help the Internet Archive today.
We’re an independent, non-profit website that the entire world depends on. If everyone chips in $25, we can keep this going for free. For the price of a book, we can share that book online forever. When I started this, people called me crazy.
Collect web pages? For 21 years, we’ve backed up the Web, so if government data or entire newspapers disappear, we can say: We Got This. We never accept ads, but we still need to pay for servers and staff. If you find our site useful, please chip in. —Brewster Kahle, Founder, Internet Archive.