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Official Logo of the Christian Reformed Church Abbreviation CRCNA or CRC Classification Orientation Theology Region, Headquarters and Origin 1857 Founded by Dutch immigrants; split from the Separations 1924–26; 1988; 1996 Congregations 1,090 (2015) Members 235,921 Official website The Christian Reformed Church in North America ( CRCNA or CRC) is a in the and. Having roots in the churches of the, the Christian Reformed Church was founded by Dutch immigrants who left the in 1857 and is theologically. Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • History [ ] The Christian Reformed Church (CRC) split from the (then known as the ) in an 1857 secession, which was in part the result of a theological dispute that originated in the Netherlands.
In 1857 four churches with about 130 families (about 10 percent of the Dutch immigrant church members in West Michigan at the time) seceded. In March, the Noordeloos church of the Classis of Holland left the Reformed Church in America. On March 19, some members of Second Reformed Church, Grand Rapids, organized a church that became First CRC, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
On April 8, churches in Graafschap and Polkton also left the Classis of Holland. Two ministers, Koene VanDen Bosch and Hendrik Klijn, joined the separatists, although Klijn returned to the Reformed Church six months later.
The new denomination that formed from this secession was led by elders and ministers from the churches in the northern Netherlands that had organized after the in the Netherlands, although members of the new denomination came from all parts of the Netherlands. The reasons given for leaving the Reformed Church were the use of (versus only ) during worship, allowing free access to communion, lax interpretation of, and failure to provide catechetical instruction to young people.
For the two years the denomination had no corporate name. In 1859 Holland Reformed Church ( Hollandsche Gereformeerde Kerk) was adopted, which was changed to Free Dutch Reformed Church (no record of a Dutch translation) in 1861. Two years later True Dutch Reformed Church ( Ware Hollandsche Gereformeerde Kerk) was approved which was changed to Holland Christian Reformed Church ( Hollandsche Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerk) in 1880.
In 1894 congregations also could use Christian Reformed Church ( Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerk) as well. The full adoption of Christian Reformed Church came in 1904, which became Christian Reformed Church in North America in 1974. In 1875, the denomination opened a theological school in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
The Preparatory Department of the school became, while the Theological Department became. By 1880 the denomination had grown to 42 congregations. Ten years later the number had grown to 100 located in 11 states. During the 1890s congregations from the True Protestant Dutch Reformed Church (located in New York and New Jersey) joined the CRC. During the 20th century a number of congregations from the disbanding German Reformed Churches also joined the CRC. By 1920 the denomination had grown to 350 congregations. At that time an estimated 350,000 Dutch immigrants had come to the United States, most of whom were in the Dutch Reformed tradition that since the 1880s was influenced by, a Dutch Neo-Calvinist theologian, journalist, and statesman (he served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands, 1901-1905).
He founded the Gereformeerde Kerken, a newspaper, the, and the Anti-Revolutionary Political Party. After the Second World War a new wave of immigration of Dutch Calvinists occurred this time mostly to Canada. During the 15 years after the war almost one-half of the denomination’s new congregations (138 of 288) were in Canada. During the early 1920s the CRC had adopted three doctrinal points regarding common grace. Three ministers,, George Ophoff, and Henry Danhof; rejected these three points as being contrary to the Reformed confessions. This dispute led to the three ministers and their followers leaving the CRC and forming what is now the.
During the early 1950s a division within the Protestant Reformed Churches in America led to the majority (about 60 percent) of the members forming the Orthodox Protestant Reformed Church, which joined the CRC in 1961. Ecumenical partnerships [ ] In 1975 the CRC joined the (OPC), (RPCNA), the (RPCES) and the (PCA) in forming the (NAPARC). In the last decades of the 20th century, the Synod enacted innovations that were rejected by some of its more conservative members and one-time sister denominations. Out of concern about the state of affairs in the CRC, a group of ministers formed the in 1981, and around the same time a federation of churches known as the, comprising some former CRC congregations, was formed. The 1995 decision to ordain women led to the formation of the (URC), and the severing of fraternal relationships between the CRC and the OPC and PCA in 1997. Because of the decision to ordain women, NAPARC suspended the CRC from membership in 1999 and expelled it in 2001.
This gradual shift has spurred some of the more conservative congregations to leave; a significant number of these have ended up in the PCA, OPC, OCRC, or URC. The CRC was a charter member of the, which organized at Grand Rapids, Michigan in 1946. The CRC joined the in 2002 after many years of hesitation due to what was seen as the more liberal membership and agenda of that body. In 2010, the Reformed Ecumenical Council and World Alliance of Reformed Churches merged to form the at a joint meeting hosted by the CRC in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
The CRC also belongs to the, the, the, and the. The CRC participates in in the United States and in the Global Christian Forum. As of 2016 the CRC has bilateral relationships with 39 denominations around the globe: 24 are in 'ecclesiastical fellowship;' 10 are 'in dialogue;' and five are in 'corresponding fellowship.' Theology [ ] The Christian Reformed Church is, and in its theology. It places high value on theological study and the application of theology to current issues, emphasizes the importance of careful Biblical, and has traditionally respected the personal conscience of individual members who feel they are led by the. The Church promotes the belief that Christians do not earn their salvation, but that it is a wholly unmerited gift from God, and that good works are the Christian response to that gift.
Reformed theology as practiced in the CRC is founded in. A more recent theologian of great influence on this denomination was (1837–1920). Kuyper, who served as the from 1901 to 1905, promoted a belief in social responsibility and called on Christians to engage actively in improving all aspects of life and society. Kuyper is regarded is a founding father of political ideology. Current scholars with wider reputations, such as philosophers and, as well as the late, have associations with this denomination and with. Has stated, 'I also admire the tradition of the Christian Reformed Church, which advocates 'bringing every thought captive' under the mind of Christ; that tiny 'transforming' denomination has had an enormous influence on science, philosophy, and the arts.' The translation of the works of into English has spurred on the study of Dutch Reformed theology.
Doctrinal standards [ ] The CRC subscribes to the —the, the, and the —as well as three Reformed Confessions, commonly referred as the: the, the, and the. In 1986, the CRC formulated a statement of faith titled 'Our World Belongs to God: A Contemporary Testimony' which addresses issues such as secularism, individualism, and relativism.
These issues were seen as 'unique challenges of faith presented by the times in which we live'. While not having confessional status, it is meant to give a hymn-like expression of our faith within the heritage of the Reformed confessions, especially addressing issues that confront the church today. The Contemporary Testimony was reviewed and updated in 2008. The second Contemporary Testimony held by the CRCNA is the, a testimony written in Afrikaans in 1982 from Reformed churches in South Africa. Social issues [ ] The Christian Reformed Church has stated its position on a number of social issues.
Summaries of those positions and references to full reports with exact statements can be found at crcna.org. The CRC is opposed to except in cases when the 'life of the mother is genuinely threatened' by her pregnancy. The church 'affirms the unique value of all human life' from the 'moment of conception'. Believers are called upon to show 'compassion' to those experiencing unwanted pregnancies, even while they speak out against the 'atrocity' of abortion. In 2010, the Synod adopted a recommendation 'to instruct the Office of Social Justice and Hunger Action (OSJ) to boldly advocate for the church’s position against abortion, and to help equip churches to promote the sanctity of human life' (Acts of Synod 2010, p. 883).'
Unlike many other Christian denominations, the CRC does not have an official stance on. Their Acts of the 1972 Synod, however, can be interpreted as also a condemnation of euthanasia, since it opposes 'the wanton or arbitrary destruction of any human being at any stage of its development from the point of conception to the point of death'. (Acts of Synod 1972, p. 64) The CRC already expressed its official opposition to legal euthanasia both in Canada and the United States. The CRC has a moderate stance on the: 'The CRC has declared that modern states are not obligated by Scripture, creed, or principle to institute and practice capital punishment. It does, however, recognize that Scripture acknowledges the right of modern states to institute and practice capital punishment if it is exercised with utmost restraint.' The official stance of the CRC is that is 'a condition of disordered sexuality that reflects the brokenness of our sinful world'.
Christian homosexuals should not pursue 'homosexualism', defined as 'explicit homosexual practice', which is 'incompatible with obedience to the will of God as revealed in Scripture'. Christian homosexuals should be given 'loving support' within the church community, compassion, and support 'towards healing and wholeness'. Christian homosexuals, like all Christians, are called to discipleship, holy obedience, and the use of their gifts in the cause of the kingdom. Opportunities to serve within the offices and the life of the congregation should be afforded to them as to heterosexual Christians.
The Christian Reformed Church in North America also opposes. Political involvement [ ] The CRC educates its constituency and mobilizes member advocacy on a wide range of social justice issues in Canada and the United States. It does so primarily through its Office of Social Justice and Hunger Action (OSJ) Office of Race Relations (ORR), and the Centre for Public Dialogue (CPD) in Canada. Major issues on which the CRC has clear, biblically rooted positions and an active advocacy effort include: Reducing or ending abortion, comprehensive reform of the U.S.
Immigration system, ending global poverty and hunger, fighting systemic racism in both Canada and the U.S., achieving more justice for aboriginal groups in the U.S. And Canada, organizing for a stronger governmental and private sector response to care for God’s creation – including climate change, refugee protection and resettlement, and standing in solidarity with those who are persecuted for their faith. Governance [ ]. The Christian Reformed Church emblem approved for U.S. Military gravestones. Refers to the form of governance and organization of a church.
The CRC follows a Presbyterian form of church polity organized under governance by elders, as compared to Episcopal polities organized under governance by bishops (Roman Catholic, United Methodist, and Episcopal denominations) and Congregational polities organized under the governance of the local congregation (Congregational, Baptist, Disciples of Christ). Governance by elders is assumed throughout the Christian Reformed Church Order, but CRC polity is not exactly like that of Presbyterian denominations. Two particular differences include the fact that the CRC has limited tenure for officebearers (so elders and deacons serve terms, not forever), and ministers are ordained and credentialed by a local congregation, not the regional classis or presbytery.
Another key difference is that church polity in the CRC does not have confessional status and, therefore, the Church Order does not have the same authority as the creeds. The Church Order is subordinate to the creeds and confessions, which are subordinate to Scripture. The Christian Reformed Church has three levels of assembly: the church council (local assembly, composed of a congregation's,, and ministerial staff), the classis (regional assembly, of which there are 48: 37 in the United States and 12 in Canada, with one straddling the international border), and the (bi-national assembly.) The church's meets annually in June, with 192 delegates: a minister, an elder and a deacon from each classis, plus one other officebearer.
Central offices of the church are located in, and. The CRC in North America has sent missionaries to many countries around the world where Christian Reformed churches have been established, but these have organized on their own and are independent from the North American denomination. Education and agencies [ ] Reformed teaching puts an emphasis on education.
As such, many CRC members support Christian day schools as well as post-secondary education. The denomination owns and supports as well as in, where the denomination's U.S.
Offices are located. Historically most ministers ordained in the CRC were trained. Other colleges associated with the denomination are (also located in Grand Rapids), in Palos Heights, Illinois; in Sioux Center, Iowa; in Ancaster, Ontario; in Edmonton, Alberta, and the post-graduate in Toronto, Ontario. In, offers a school devoted to the education of those with special needs.
Agencies [ ]. The logo of The Back to God Hour radio program, which gave Back to God Ministries International its original name. Christian Reformed Churches in the USA by county, 2008 Membership trends [ ] After a time of steady growth during the period of 1963–1992, membership totals have declined, even though the number of churches has grown.
In 1992, at the height of its membership, the Christian Reformed Churches had 316,415 members in 981 churches in the United States and Canada. Download El Arte De La Cocina Francesa Pdf. In 2012 membership had dropped to 251,727 members in 1099 churches, marking a loss of 65,000 members (or 20% of its membership) in the last 20 years. In 2015 CRC reported membership growth, first time since 1992. According to recent statistics the denomination has 249,227 members in 1090 congregations. In 2016, the denomination reported having 235,921 members. Notable members [ ] • David Apol, General Council, •, founder, •, 1873–1957, prominent Reformed theologian of the 20th century • Dirk Booy, vice president, • Emily R.
Brink, hymnist and professor of church music and worship •, U. Easybox Wpa2 Keygen Mac. S. Senator from • Sietze Buning, poet, the pen name of Stanley Wiersma (1930–1986) •, businessman, co-founder of •, US Secretary of Education • Calvin B. DeWitt, environmentalist and co-founder of the Evangelical Environmental Network •, founder, •, U.S.
Representative from Michigan •, 1908–1994, philosopher, University of Michigan •, U.S. Representative from Michigan •, (1886-1965) Reformed theologian who helped found the • Shirley B. Hoogstra, President of the •, U.S. Christian Reformed Church. Christian Reformed Church in North America. Retrieved June 15, 2016. • ^ July 22, 2011, at the.
Christian Reformed Church. • Acts of Synod 2002, pg.485; Acts of Synod 2003, pg.231 • www.brandesign.com.au.. • Philip Yancey, 'A State of Ungrace Part 2' Christianity Today Vol. February 3, 1997 • De Moor, Robert (2001). Reformed: What It Means, Why It Matters. Faith Alive Christian Resources.
• Psalter Hymnal: Doctrinal Standards and Liturgy of the Christian Reformed Church. [Publication Committee of the Christian Reformed Church, Inc. • • De Moor, Robert (2001). Reformed: What It Means, Why It Matters. Faith Alive Christian Resources.
• • crcna.org/welcome/beliefs/position-statements •. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2016. Christian Reformed Church. Retrieved 1 July 2016. 26 June 2012.
Retrieved 1 July 2016. Christian Reformed Church. Retrieved 18 September 2012. Christian Reformed Church. Retrieved 18 September 2012. 26 June 2012. 30 January 2017.
25 April 2016. Christian Reformed Church. • De Moor, Robert (2001).
Reformed: What It Means, Why It Matters.. Scott Hoezee, The Banner, 2007 •.
Retrieved 1 July 2016. 24 July 2012.
31 July 2012. 31 July 2012. 31 July 2012.
27 April 2015. 10 July 2012.
31 July 2012. 31 July 2012. 31 July 2012. 19 June 2013. 28 August 2015. 14 July 2015. Partners Worldwide.
5 January 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016. Christian Reformed Church in North America. Retrieved June 15, 2016. 21 September 2010. Calvin College – Spark On-Line.
References [ ] • Bratt, James H. Dutch Calvinism in Modern America: A History of a Conservative Subculture.
Eerdmans, 1984. • Doezema, Linda Pegman. Dutch Americans: A Guide to Information Sources. Gale Research, 1979. • Kroes, Rob, and Henk-Otto Neuschafer, eds. The Dutch in North America: Their Immigration and Cultural Continuity. Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1991.
• Kromminga, John. The Christian Reformed Church: A Study in Orthodoxy. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books, 1949. • Schaap, James. Our Family Album: The Unfinished Story of the Christian Reformed Church.
Grand Rapids, Mich.: CRC Publications, 1998. • Sheeres, Janet Sjaarda. Son of Secession: Douwe J.
Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2006. • Smidt, Corwin, Donald Luidens, James Penning, and Roger Nemeth. Divided by a Common Heritage: The Christian Reformed Church and the Reformed Church in America at the Beginning of the New Millennium. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006.
• Swierenga, Robert. Faith and Family: Dutch Immigration and Settlement in the United States, 1820–1920 (2000) • Zwaanstra, Henry. Reformed Thought and Experience in a New World: A Study of the Christian Reformed Church and Its American Environment 1890–1918. The Netherlands: Kampen, 1973. External links [ ] has the text of a 1920 article about. • • • • • • •.
Since World War II, historians have analyzed a phenomenon of “white flight” plaguing the urban areas of the northern United States. One of the most interesting cases of “white flight” occurred in the Chicago neighborhoods of Englewood and Roseland, where seven entire church congregations from one denomination, the Christian Reformed Church, left the city in the 1960s and 1970s and relocated their churches to nearby suburbs. In Shades of White Flight, sociologist Mark T. Mulder investigates the migration of these Chicago church members, revealing how these churches not only failed to inhibit white flight, but actually facilitated the congregations’ departure. Using a wealth of both archival and interview data, Mulder sheds light on the forces that shaped these midwestern neighborhoods and shows that, surprisingly, evangelical religion fostered both segregation as well as the decline of urban stability. Indeed, the Roseland and Englewood stories show how religion—often used to foster community and social connectedness—can sometimes help to disintegrate neighborhoods. Mulder describes how the Dutch CRC formed an insular social circle that focused on the local church and Christian school—instead of the local park or square or market—as the center point of the community.
Rather than embrace the larger community, the CRC subculture sheltered themselves and their families within these two places. Thus it became relatively easy—when black families moved into the neighborhood—to sell the church and school and relocate in the suburbs. This is especially true because, in these congregations, authority rested at the local church level and in fact they owned the buildings themselves. Revealing how a dominant form of evangelical church polity—congregationalism—functioned within the larger phenomenon of white flight, Shades of White Flight lends new insights into the role of religion and how it can affect social change, not always for the better.